(2009年4月27日更新)


コノハシメジ Tricholoma foliicola Har. Takah., Mycoscience 42: 355-360, 2001
  Figs. 1, 2
  肉眼的特徴: 傘は径 25-55 mm, 最初半球形で縁部は内側に巻き, のち饅頭形〜ほぼ平
開し, 時に中丘を具え, 溝線を欠き, 平滑, 乾性, 吸水性, 赤褐色, 周縁部に向かって色がやや
淡くなる. 肉は厚さ 10 mm以下, 白色, やや脆い; 特別な味や臭いはないかまたはやや粉臭が
ある. 柄は 40-90×7-10 mm, ほぼ上下同大, 中心生, 中空, 白色, 平坦, 絹状, 帯状のツバの
痕跡や境界線状のツバを欠く; 根本は白色の密綿毛状菌糸体に被われ, 基質に広がった菌糸
マットにつながる. ヒダはほぼ直性〜やや陥入し, 著しく密 (柄に到達するヒダは 110-120), 幅
4 mm, 薄く, 白色; 縁部は長縁毛状 (fimbriate)で, 縁取りを欠く.
  顕微鏡的特徴: 担子胞子は 4.5-5.5×2-2.5 μm [Q = length/breadth: 1.93-2.20], 楕円形
または長楕円形, 平坦, 無色, 薄壁, 非アミロイド. 担子器は 17-29×5-6 μm, こん棒形, 4胞
子性. 偽担子器はこん棒形. 縁シスチジア及び側シスチジアを欠く. 子実層托実質は平列型; 菌
糸は円柱形で, 肥大しない (幅10 μm以下). 傘の表皮は平行菌糸被; 菌糸は不規則に錯綜
し, 円柱形, 幅 2-7 μm, 褐色の細胞間色素を有するが細胞壁には凝着せず, 薄壁, 非アミロイ
ド. 傘の実質を構成する菌糸は幅 6-18 μm, 不規則に錯綜し, 円柱形またはやや肥大し, しば
しば分岐し, 無色, 薄壁, 非アミロイド. 柄の表皮は平行菌糸被; 菌糸は 幅 5 μm以下, 円柱
形, 無色, 薄壁, 非アミロイド; 柄シスチジアはない. 柄の実質は縦に沿って配列した円柱形の菌
糸 (幅 8 μm以下)からなり, 無分岐, 無色 薄壁, 非アミロイド. 全ての組織において菌糸はクラ
ンプを欠く.
  供試標本: KPM-NC0007428 (holotype), Izumino-mori, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa-ken, 13
Oct. 2000, H.Takahashi; KPM-NC0007429, the same place, 14 Oct. 2000, H.Takahashi.
  コメント: 傘は赤褐色で吸水性があり, 粘性を欠き, ヒダは幅狭く, 著しく密生する. 神奈川
県大和市泉の森のシラカシとコナラを中心とする林内の落ち葉堆積上に発生. 標本は神奈川
県立生命の星・地球博物館の標本庫(KPM)に登録, 収蔵されている.
  傘に粘性を欠く特徴は異質であるが, 暫定的にカキシメジの仲間として扱った. 本種の外観
および生態はモリノカレバタケ属 (Gymnopus) を想起させるが, 菌糸にクランプを欠く点で異な
る. 腐植上の生態 (非菌根性?), モリノカレバタケ型の類型, 密生したヒダ, 6μm以下の微小な
担子胞子, 全ての組織において隔壁にクランプを持たない菌糸, 細胞壁に凝着しない細胞間
(intercellular) 色素などの特徴から判断すると, モリノカレバタケ型の子実体を形成する
Pleurocollybia 属 (Singer の分類概念によるヒダサカズキタケ亜連に属し, 熱帯地域を含む南
北アメリカ及びアフリカに分布) との類縁も考えられる.

Tricholoma foliicola Har. Takah., Mycoscience 42: 355-360, 2001        Figs. 1, 2
  Pileus 25-55 mm in diam, at first hemispherical with involute margin, expanding to convex
or applanate, sometimes with low, broad umbo, smooth, glabrous, dry, hygrophanous,
brownish red (8C7-8) to reddish brown (8D7-8), somewhat paler toward the margin. Flesh
up to 10 mm thick, white, somewhat brittle; odor and taste not distinctive or somewhat
farinaceous. Stipe 40-90×7-10 mm, almost equal, central, terete, hollow, white, smooth,
silky, without a sharply delimited pallid apical zone; base covered with white, mycelial
tomentum attached to an extensive mycelial mat in the substratum. Lamellae adnate-
emarginate, densely crowded (110-120 reach the stipe), up to 4 mm broad, thin, white;
edges fimbriate, concolorous.
  Basidiospores 4.5-5.5×2-2.5 μm [Q = length/breadth: 1.93-2.20], ellipsoid or oblong,
smooth, colorless, thin-walled, inamyloid. Basidia 17-29×5-6 μm, clavate, four-spored.
Basidioles clavate. Cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia absent. Hymenophoral trama regular;
element hyphae similar to those of the pileitrama but non-inflated (up to 10 μm wide).
Pileipellis a cutis of irregularly entangled, cylindric hyphae 2-7 μm wide, with intercellular
brown pigment, not incrusting, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid. Hyphae of pileitrama 6-18 μm
wide, irregularly entangled, cylindric or somewhat inflated, often branched, colorless, smooth,
thin-walled, inamyloid. Stipitipellis a cutis of parallel, repent hyphae up to 5 μm wide,
cylindric, smooth, colorless, thin-walled, inamyloid; caulocystidia none. Stipe trama composed
of longitudinally running, cylindric hyphae up to 8 μm wide, unbranched, smooth, colorless,
thin-walled, inamyloid. Clamp connections absent.
  Known distribution: Japan (Kanagawa).
  Habitat: Solitary to caespitose on leaf litter in broad-leaved forest dominated by
Quercus myrsinaefolia and Quercus serrata, October, common.
  Specimens examined: KPM-NC0007428 (holotype), Izumino-mori, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa-
ken, 13 Oct. 2000, H.Takahashi; KPM-NC0007429, the same place, 14 Oct. 2000, H.
Takahashi.
  Japanese name: Konoha-shimeji (first collected and named by Mr.Minoru Aoki).
  Notes: This species is characterized by its reddish brown, hygrophanous, dry, glabrous
pileus, the almost adnate, densely crowded lamellae, the small, ellipsoid basidiospores, the
clampless hyphae, and the habitat on leaf litter of broad-leaved forests. With the exception
of the non-viscid pileus, the combination of these characteristics suggests that Tricholoma
foliicola is allied with the section Albobrunnea (Konrad & Maubl.) Bon (Bon, 1984; Riva, 1988).
  Tricholoma foliicola can be distinguished from a group of closely related taxa, Tricholoma
pessundatum (Fr.) Quel., Tricholoma populinum J.E.Lange, and Tricholoma ustale (Fr.: Fr.) P.
Kumm. by its somewhat hygrophanous, non-viscid pileus and white, glabrous stipe.
Tricholoma foliicola is also comparable with Tricholoma ceriniceps Pegler from the Lesser
Antilles (Pegler, 1983) in its dry, glabrous pileus, densely crowded lamellae, and absence of
clamp connections. The latter species, however, differs in having an ochraceous orange or
honey-yellow pileus, a squamulose stipe, and extremely bitter taste.


Fig. 1.Tricholoma foliicola.
A. Basidiospores. B. Basidium and basidiole. C. Elements of the pileipellis.
Scales: 10µm. All figures from the holotype.


Fig. 2. Basidiomata of Tricholoma foliicola.
A. Basidiomata on leaf litter. B. Close-up of the mature lamellae.
Scales: A = 20 mm; B = 10 mm. All figures from the holotype.


トップへ
トップへ
戻る
戻る