(2018年7月5日更新)





A Basidiospores. B Cheilocystidia. C Pleurocystidia. D Elements of the pileipellis. E 
Caulocystidia. Bars 10 μm.


ダルマイグチ Rubinoboletus monstrosus Har. Takah., Mycoscience (2007) 48: 90-99.
  肉眼的特徴: 傘は径 50-140 mm, 最初半球形, のち饅頭形から平開し, しばしば不規則
な形状になり, 表面は乾性, 時に中央部に亀甲状のひび割れを生じ, 帯赤黄褐色〜淡黄褐色,
時に若いときレンガ赤色を帯び, やや密綿毛状〜ほぼ平滑. 肉は厚さ 12 mm 以下 (傘中央
部), 類白色で変色性を欠き, 不快な臭気と苦みがある. 柄は 20-40×15-45 mm, 著しく短形
で, ほぼ上下同大または基部に向かって細まり, 中心生, 最初から中空, 表面は乾性, ほぼ平
滑またはやや密綿毛状, 傘より淡色〜淡黄褐色, 網目を欠き, 根元に分化した菌糸体は見ら
れない. 管孔は深さ 10 mm以下, 直性または柄の周囲においややて陥入し, 黄褐色, 空気に
触れても変色しない; 孔口は小型 (2-3 per mm), 円形〜やや角形, 管孔と同色. 
  顕微鏡的特徴: 担子胞子は 5-6×3.5-4 μm [Q = length/breadth: 1.4-1.5], 卵形〜短楕
円形, 平坦, 淡黄色. 担子器は 25-30×6-8 μm, こん棒形, 4胞子性. 縁シスチジアは群生し, 
34-52×8-13 μm, 紡錘形, 平坦, 無色, 薄壁. 側シスチジアは散在し, 30-60×5-15 μm, 紡
錘形, 黄褐色の内容物を持ち, 薄壁. 傘の表皮は毛状被からなり, 菌糸は幅 5-8μm, 緩く錯
綜し, 円柱形, 黄褐色の細かい粒状色素が細胞壁の外側に沈着し, 薄壁. 柄の表皮は匍匐性
の菌糸が並列し, 柄シスチジアは 12-35-65×4-10 μm, 広こん棒形, 平坦, 無色, 薄壁. 全て
の組織において菌糸はクランプを欠く.
  コメント:  子実体は中〜大型 (傘の径 5-14 cm)で歪な形状になることが多く、傘は赤褐色
〜黄褐色、柄は最初から中空で常に太短く (長さと太さがほぼ同等)、肉は不快な臭気と苦み
があり、変色性はなく、担子胞子は短楕円形で淡黄色を帯び、子実層に紡錘形の薄壁シスチ
ジア (側シスチジアは黄褐色の内容物を持つ) が存在する. 
  柄に網目を欠き、短形且つ淡黄色の担子胞子、有色の内容物を含む明瞭な側シスチジ
アを有する性質に基づき、本種は Heinemman & Rammeloo (1983)及び Watling ら (Li and 
Watling, 1999; Watling and Gregory, 1988; Watling and Li, 1999) の定義による Rubinoboletus
に属すると考えられる. 
  本種はキニガイグチ近縁群 Tylopilus aff. balloui (Peck) Singer に近い性質を示すが、次の
ような相違点が見られる: 1) 柄は常に太短く、子実体は通常ずんぐりした独特の形状になり、
柄の内部が最初から大きな空洞になる; 2) 柄は一様に淡黄褐色; 3) 孔口は老成時において
も常に微細 (2-3 per mm). 
  短形で太い柄を持つ性質はオーストラリア産 Rubinoboletus caespitosus (Clel.) T.-H. Li 
& R. Watling (Cleland, 1924; Grgurinovic, 1997; Li and Watling, 1999; Watling and Li , 1999) と
共通するが、オーストラリア産種は担子胞子がより大型で、子実体は叢生し、柄が中空になら
ない点で本種と異なる.
  5月下旬〜6月上旬頃、石垣島パンナ岳のスダジイ、オキナワウラジロガシなどが移植された庭
園内にしばしば大発生する. 自然林ではなく、人為的な生態環境のみに発生することから、お
そらく他の地域から移入されたものと思われる.

Rubinoboletus monstrosus Har. Takah., Mycoscience (2007) 48: 90-99.           
  Etymology: Latin, monstrosus = monstrous, referring to the peculiar habit of its 
basidiomata.
    Pileus 50-140 mm in diam, at first hemispherical, expanding to broadly convex; surface 
dry, sometimes rimose-areolate at the center, entirely grayish orange (5B6) or brownish 
orange (5C5-6) to yellowish brown (5D5) from the outset, sometimes reddish brown (8D7) 
when young and fresh, subtomentose to nearly glabrous. Flesh up to 12 mm thick, whitish, 
unchanging when exposed; odor strongly disagreeable (like rotten meat), taste bitter. Stipe 
20-40×15-45 mm, very short, subequal or tapering toward the base, central, terete, hollow 
from the outset; surface dry, entirely almost glabrous to subtomentose, yellowish brown (5D4
-5), non-reticulate; basal mycelium not observed. Tubes -10 mm deep, adnate or slightly 
depressed around the stipe, grayish orange (5B4-5) when young, then yellowish brown (5D6)
in age, unchanging when exposed; pores small (2-3 per mm), rounded to subangular, 
concolorous.
  Basidiospores (n = 115 spores of 6 basidiocarps) 5-6×3.5-4 μm, Q (length/breadth) =  
1.4-1.5, ovoid-ellipsoid, smooth, pale yellow in H2O, walls up to 0.5 μm. Basidia 25-30×6-8 
μm, clavate, four-spored. Basidioles clavate. Cheilocystidia gregarious, 34-52×8-13 μm, 
fusoid-ventricose, smooth, hyaline, thin-walled. Pleurocystidia scattered, 30-60×5-15 μm, 
fusoid-ventricose, smooth, with yellowish brown to golden yellow (in H2O) contents, thin-
walled. Hymenophoral trama composed of hyphal elements 6-10 μm wide, cylindrical, 
parallel each other, smooth, hyaline, thin-walled. Pileipellis composed of a trichoderm formed 
by loosely interwoven hyphal elements, 5-8 μm wide, cylindrical, incrusted with granular 
yellowish brown (in H2O) pigment, thin-walled. Pileitrama of cylindrical, loosely interwoven 
hyphae 4-13 μm wide, smooth, colorless, thin-walled. Stipitipellis composed of parallel, 
repent hyphae 2-5 μm wide, cylindrical, smooth, colorless, thin-walled; caulocystidia 12-35
×4-10 μm, broadly clavate, smooth, hyaline, thin-walled. Stipe trama composed of 
longitudinally arranged, cylindrical cells 6-20 μm wide, unbranched, smooth, colorless, thin-
walled. Clamps absent in all tissues.
  Known distribution: Japan (Okinawa).
  Habitat: Solitary to scattered, on ground in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests 
dominated by Q. miyagii and C. cuspidata var. sieboldii, May.
    Specimens examined: KPM-NC0013139 (holotype), Banna-dake, Ishigaki-shi, Okinawa 
pref., May 19, 2004, coll. H.Takahashi; KPM-NC0013141, the same place, May 20, 2003, coll. 
H.Takahashi; KPM-NC0013142, the same place, May 25, 2004, coll. H.Takahashi; KPM-
NC0013143, the same place, May 14, 2005, coll. H.Takahashi; KPM-NC0013140, the same 
place, May 20, 2005, coll. H.Takahashi. 
  Japanese name: Daruma-iguchi.
  Notes: Features delimiting this species include the medium to large, peculiar habit of its 
basidiomata, the brownish orange to yellowish brown pileus, the very short, non-reticulate, 
hollow stipe, the short ellipsoid, light yellowish basidiospores, the prominent pleurocystidia 
containing yellowish brown to golden yellow contents, and the habitat in subtropical 
evergreen broad-leaved forests. 
  Its whitish, unchanging flesh and its pale yellow, short ellipsoid basidiospores suggest 
that this species belongs in the genus Boletus, Gyroporus, or Tylopilus. However, if greater 
taxonomic emphasis is placed on the non-reticulate stipe, the short ellipsoid, light yellowish 
basidiospores, and its prominent pleurocystidia containing yellowish brown to golden yellow 
contents, it would be better placed in the genus Rubinoboletus Pilat & Dermek in the sense 
of Heinemman and Rammeloo (Heinemman and Rammeloo 1983; Watling and Gregory 1988; 
Li and Watling 1999; Watling and Li 1999).
  It seems to be allied with Tylopilus aff. balloui (Peck) Singer, originally described from 
North America (Singer 1947; Snell and Dick 1970; Corner 1972; Heinemman and Rammeloo 
1983; Bessette et al. 2000). The latter species, however, differs mainly in its much longer, 
solid stipe and its angular pores reaching 2 mm at maturity. The Australian species R.
caespitosus T.H. Li & Watling (Cleland 1924; Grgurinovic 1997; Li and Watling 1999; Watling 
and Li 1999) is somewhat similar in appearance, but differs in having much larger 
basidiospores and a caespitose habit with a solid stipe. 


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