(2011年11月17日更新)

ナンヨウシビレタケ (新種) Psilocybe capitulata Har. Takah., Mycoscience    
  Volume 52, Number 6, 392-400, 2011
  MycoBank no.: MB 519033
                  

A. Primordia and immature basidiomata. B. Immature basidioma. C. Mature basidiomata. 
D. Surface of the mature pileus which is covered overall with brownish, furfuraceous 
squamules



A. Basidiospores (mounted in KOH). B. Cheilocystidia. C. Pleurocystidia. D. Pilocystidia.  


  肉眼的特徴: 子実体原基は径1-2 mm, 卵形〜楕円形で, 全体に白色の綿毛状被膜に被わ
れる. 傘は径42-93 mm, 最初半球形〜円錐状釣り鐘形, のち山型〜ほぼ平開し, 時に中丘を
具える; 表面は最初白色の消失性被膜の名残が点在するが間もなくほぼ平滑になり, 老成す
ると全体が帯褐色小鱗片に被われ, 湿時やや粘性, 吸水性, 湿時橙褐色〜褐色を帯び部分的
に暗色を呈し, 乾くと周辺部から淡色〜類白色になり, 触れた部分は徐々に青変する. 肉は厚
さ9 mm以下, 類白色, 空気に触れると徐々に青変し, 特別な味や臭いはない. 柄は48-63 × 5
-20 mm, ほぼ上下同大, 時に基部に向かってやや拡大し, 中心生, 中空; 表面は上部が繊維
状, 下部は小鱗片, しばしばツバより上部に条線を表し, 類白色〜淡褐色, 触れた部分は徐々
に青変する; ツバは幅8-15 mm, 薄い膜質, 永存性, 脆く, 白色, 条線を表す; 根元は白色の剛
毛状菌糸体に被われる. ヒダは直生〜上生, 密 (柄に到達するヒダは42-51), 1-3の小ヒダを交
え, 幅 12 mm以下, 暗紫褐色; 縁部はやや綿毛状, 帯灰色.  
  顕微鏡的特徴: 担子胞子は(13-)13.5-15(-19) × 8-9(-9.5) μm, 側面観において亜楕円
形, 正面観においてやや角張った六角形, 平滑, 帯灰赤色〜帯褐赤色, KOH溶液中において
橙黄色, やや厚壁(0.5-1 μm), 頂部において切形, 明瞭な発芽孔を持つ. 担子器は25-35 × 
10-12 μm, こん棒形, 2-4胞子性. 縁シスチジアは 24-35 × 3-9 μm, 群生し, 片脹れ状紡錘
形で頂部はやや頭状になり, 平滑, KOHによる反応は陰性, 薄壁. 側シスチジアはないかまた
は稀に存在し, 28-39 × 10-15 μm, 偽担子器形, 広こん棒形, 鈍頭な頂部を持ち, 時に中央
部が僅かに収縮し, 平滑, KOHによる反応は陰性, 薄壁. 子実層托実質の菌糸は径5-22 μm, 
亜円柱形〜紡錘形, しばしば膨大し, 並列型, 平滑, KOHによる反応は陰性, 薄壁. 傘の上表皮
層は緩く錯綜した平行菌糸被を成す; 構成菌糸は径2-10 μm, 亜円柱形, KOHにより橙色に
染まる粒状色素が菌糸の表面に凝着する; 傘シスチジアは40-60 × 2-13 μm, こん棒形〜円
柱形, しばしば頂部が頭状形になり, 平滑, KOHによる反応は陰性, 薄壁. 傘実質の菌糸は径5
-10 μm diam, 平列し, 亜円柱形, 膨大せず, 平滑, KOHによる反応は陰性, 薄壁. 柄の表皮組
織は傘の上表皮層に類似する; 構成菌糸は径2-5 μm, 円柱形, 平滑, KOHによる反応は陰
性, 薄壁; 分化した末端細胞は存在しない. 柄の実質は縦に沿って配列した円柱形の菌糸(径5
-12 μm) からなり, 平滑, 無色, 非アミロイド, KOHによる反応は陰性. ツバを構成する菌糸は
径2-3 μm, 緩く錯綜し, 亜円柱形, 膨大せず, 平滑, KOHによる反応は陰性, 薄壁. 全ての組織
において菌糸にクランプが見られる.   
   生態: 孤生〜散生, 牛糞上に発生し, 年間を通じて普通に見られる. 
   分布: 日本(沖縄). 
   供試標本: KPM-NC0017300, 沖縄県石垣市, 牛糞上, 2002年2月9日, 採集者: 高橋春樹, 上
原貞美, 坂本晴雄; KPM-NC0017301, same place, 2 March 2002, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-
NC0017302, same place, 26 Feb. 2008, coll. Takahashi, H. & Sakamoto, H.; KPM-NC0017303, 
same place, 28 Feb. 2008, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017304, same place, 3 March 2008, 
coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017305, same place, 2 Jun. 2008, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-
NC0017306, the same place, 14 Jun. 2008, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017307, same place, 
2 Feb. 2009, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017308, same place, 9 March 2010, coll. Takahashi, 
H.
    主な特徴:
1) 傘の表面は老成時において帯褐色の小鱗片に被われる.
2) 肉は青変性を有する.
3) 白色で膜質の発達したツバを持つ.
4) 担子胞子は正面観においてやや角張った六角形をなす.
5) 頂部頭状形の傘シスチジアが存在する.
6) 牛糞上に発生.  
    コメント: 糞生の生態, 青変性を有する子実体, 発達した永存性のツバ, やや角張った六角
形の胞子などの性質を総合的に判断すれば, 本種はGuzman (1983)の分類概念による
Cubensae 節 (Cubensae Guzman)に属すると考えられる. 節内において本種は熱帯〜亜熱帯
に広く分布するシビレタケモドキ(宮城 1967) (別名: ミナミシビレタケ, ニライタケ) Psilocybe
cubensis (Earle) Singer (Earle 1906; Guzman 1978, 1983; Pegler 1983; Stamets 1996; 
Thomas et al. 2002; Cortez and Coelho 2004)およびメキシコ産Psilocybe subcubensis 
Guzman (Guzman 1978, 1983)に最も近縁と思われる. これら2種は発達した片脹れ状〜洋梨
形の側シスチジアを有し(ナンヨウシビレタケは側シスチジアを欠くかもしくは発達の悪い偽担
子器形の側シスチジアを形成する), 頂部頭状形の傘シスチジアを欠き, 老成時において通常
傘が平滑になる点でナンヨウシビレタケと異なる. Cubensae 節以外では, インドネシア(ジャワ
島)と日本に分布するオオシビレタケPsilocybe subaeruginascens Hohn. (Hohnel 1914, 
Guzman 1983, Nagasawa 1987, Horak and Desjardin 2006) も本種に外観がやや類似するが, 
レンズ形の担子胞子と発達した片脹れ状紡錘形の側シスチジアを有し, 傘シスチジアを欠く点
でナンヨウシビレタケと容易に区別できる.
  尚, P. cubensis の日本における分布については, 1967年に八重山諸島および沖縄本島産の
標本に基づき琉球大学教授(当時)宮城元助博士によりシビレタケモドキの仮称が与えられた. 
その後1996年に京堂健氏はミナミシビレタケの新称和名を用いている.


Psilocybe capitulata Har. Takah., (Mycoscience Volume 52, Online First Article, 2011)  
MycoBank no.: MB 519033

Macromorphological features:
   Primordium 1-2 mm in diam, ovoid to oblong-ellipsoid, enveloped in white, floccose 
universal veil. Pileus 42-93 mm in diam, at first hemispherical to conic-campanulate, 
expanding to broadly convex to almost plane, sometimes broadly umbonate, with straight 
margin, not appendiculate; surface at first spotted with fugacious, white remnants of the 
veil, soon glabrescent, eventually covered overall with brownish, furfuraceous squamules in 
age, subviscid when wet, hygrophanous, brownish orange (7C6-7) to brown (7D6-7) when 
moist, mottled with darker areas (near brownish red: 8C6-7) at the center, drying to paler 
(6C4-5) or whitish from the margin, gradually changing to blue where handled. Flesh up to 9 
mm, whitish, gradually changing to blue when cut; odor and taste not distinctive. Stipe 48-
63 × 5-20 mm, subequal or at times somewhat thickening toward the base, central, terete, 
hollow; surface fibrillose above, squamulose below, sometimes striate above the annulus, 
whitish to pale brownish, gradually changing to blue where handled; annulus 8-15 mm wide, 
thin, membranous, persistent, fragile, white, striate; base covered with white strigose 
mycelial hairs. Lamellae adnate to adnexed, close (42-51 reach the stipe) with 1-3 series 
of lamellulae, up to 12 mm broad, dark-brown (8F6-8) to reddish-brown (9F7-8); edges 
subfloccose, greyish.

Micromorphological features:
   Basidiospores (13-)13.5-15(-19) × 8-9(-9.5) μm (Q = length/breadth: 1.6), subellipsoid 
in side view, subhexagonal in face view, smooth, greyish red (10D5) to brownish red (10D6) in 
H2O, orange-yellow (4A7-4B7) in KOH, thick-walled (0.5-1 μm), truncated at the apex, with 
a distinct germ pore. Basidia 25-35 × 10-12 μm, clavate, 2- to 4-spored. Cheilocystidia  
24-35 × 3-9 μm, abundant, forming a compact sterile edge, fusoid-ventricose with a 
subcapitate apex, smooth, hyaline in KOH, thin-walled. Pleurocystidia none or infrequent, 28
-39 × 10-15 μm, basidiomorphous, broadly clavate, with a rounded apex, sometimes with a 
slight median constriction, smooth, hyaline in KOH, thin-walled. Hyphae of hymenophoral 
trama 5-22 μm diam, subcylindrical to fusoid, often inflated, parallel, smooth, hyaline in 
KOH, thin-walled. Pileipellis a loose cutis of entangled, gelatinous, subcylindrical hyphae 2-
10 μm diam, encrusted with orange (6A7-6B7) pigment in KOH; pilocystidia 40-60 × 2-13 
μm, clavate-cylindrical, often with a capitulate apex, smooth, hyaline in KOH, thin-walled.  
Hyphae of pileitrama 5-10 μm diam, parallel, subcylindrical, not inflated, smooth, hyaline in 
KOH, thin-walled. Stipitipellis a loose cutis of entangled, non-gelatinous, cylindrical hyphae 2
-5 μm diam, smooth, hyaline in KOH, thin-walled, lacking differentiated terminal cells. Stipe 
trama composed of longitudinally running, cylindrical cells 5-12 μm diam, smooth, hyaline in 
KOH, thin-walled. Elements of annulus 2-3 μm diam, loosely interwoven, subcylindrical, not 
inflated, smooth, hyaline in KOH, thin-walled. Clamp connections present in all tissues. 
    Habitat: Solitary to scattered, coprophilous on cow dung, almost year-round, common. 
    Specimens examined: Specimens examined: KPM-NC0017300 (holotype), Ishigaki-shi, 
Okinawa pref., on cow dung, 9 Feb. 2002, coll. Takahashi, H., Uehara, S., & Sakamoto, H.; KPM
-NC0017301, same place, 2 March 2002, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017302, same place, 
26 Feb. 2008, coll. Takahashi, H. & Sakamoto, H.; KPM-NC0017303, same place, 28 Feb. 
2008, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017304, same place, 3 March 2008, coll. Takahashi, H.; 
KPM-NC0017305, same place, 2 Jun. 2008, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017306, the same 
place, 14 Jun. 2008, coll. Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017307, same place, 2 Feb. 2009, coll. 
Takahashi, H.; KPM-NC0017308, same place, 9 March 2010, coll. Takahashi, H.
    Known distribution: Japan (Okinawa). 
    CommentsPsilocybe capitulata is well characterized by the brownish orange to brown 
pileus covered overall with brownish, furfuraceous squamules in age, the cyanescent flesh, 
the persistent, white, membranous annulus, the capitulate pilocystidia, and the coprophilous 
habit on the cow dung. Its cyanescent basidiomata on the cow dung, the subhexagonal, thick
-walled basidiospores, and the well-developed, persistent annulus indicate alignment of the 
present fungus with the section Cubensae Guzman (Guzman 1983). Because of its typically 
furfuraceous-squamulose pileus in age, the capitulate pilocystidia, and the infrequent, less-
developed pleurocystidia, P. capitulata can be distinguished from the other previously known 
taxa of the section Cubensae such as pantropical P. cubensis (Earle) Singer (Earle 1906; 
Guzman 1978, 1983; Pegler 1983; Stamets 1996; Thomas et al. 2002; Cortez and Coelho 
2004) and P. subcubensis Guzman from Mexico (Guzman 1978, 1983).
  Apart from the section CubensaeP. subaeruginascens Hohn. from Indonesia (Hohnel 
1914; Guzman 1983, Horak and Desjardin 2006) and Japan (Nagasawa 1987) bears a 
superficial resemblance to P. capitulata, though it is distinct in possessing rhomboid 
basidiospores, producing well-developed, broadly fusoid-ventricose pleurocystidia, and 
lacking pilocystidia. Psilocybe subannulata E. Horak & Guzman from Puerto Rico (Guzman et 
al. 2009) is also similar to P. capitulata in appearance. The former is easily separated from 
P. capitulata in having rhombic basidiospores and lacking pilocystidia. The present species 
may possibly be related to P. magnispora E. Horak, Guzman & Desjardin from Thailand 
(Horak et al. 2009) in having a submembranous annulus, cyanescent flesh, and a 
coprophilous habit. Psilocybe magnispora, however, is differentiated from P. capitulata in 
possessing rhomboid basidiospores, forming well developed pleurocystidia with refrigent 
incrustations, and lacking pilocystidia. 


References 

Cortez VG, Coelho G (2004) The Stropharioideae (Strophariaceae, Agaricales) from Santa 
  Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mycotaxon 89:355-378
Earle FS (1906) Algunos hongos cubanos. Primer Informe anual, Estacion Central 
  Agronomica de Cuba, Habana (pags. 225-242)
Guzman G (1978) The species of Psilocybe known from Central and South America. 
  Mycotaxon 7:225-255
Guzman G (1983) The Genus Psilocybe, a systematic revision of the known species including 
  the history, distribution and chemistry of the hallucinogenic species. Beih Nova Hedwigia 
  74:1-439
Hohnel F (1914) Fragmente zur Mykologie, XVI. Mitteilung, No. 813-875. Sitzungsber. 
  Kaiserl. Akad. Wissen. Wien 123(1):49-155
Horak E, Desjardin D E (2006). Agaricales of Indonesia. 6. Psilocybe (Strophariaceae) from
  Indonesia (Java, Bali, Lombok). Sydowia 58 (1):15-37
Horak E, Guzman G, Desjardin DE (2009) Four new species of Psilocybe from Malaysia and 
  Thailand, with a key to the species of sect. Neocaledonicae and discussion on the
Kornerup A, Wanscher JH (1983) Methuen handbook of colour. Eyre Methuen, London 
宮城元助(1967) 沖縄島産マツタケ目について(U). 琉球大文理学部紀要
  (理学編) 10: 38-45.
Nagasawa E (1987) Strophariaceae. In: Imazeki R, Hongo T (eds) Colored Illustrations of 
  Mushrooms of Japan I (in Japanese). Hoikusha, Osaka, pp 190-211
Pegler DN (1983) Agaric flora of the Lesser Antilles. Kew Bulletin Add. Ser. IX. 
  Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London 
Singer R (1976) Marasmieae (Basidiomycetes - Tricholomataceae). Flora Neotrop Monogr  
  17:1-347  
Singer R. (1986) Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th edn. Koeltz, Koenigstein  
Stamets P (1996) Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California
Takahashi H (2011) Two new species of Agaricales and a new Japanese record for 
  Chaetocalathus fragilis from Ishigaki Island, a southwestern island of Japan. Mycoscience
  52: 392-400
Thomas KA, Manimohan P, Guzman G, Tapia F, Ramirez-Guillen F (2002) The genus 
   Psilocybe in Kerala State, India. Mycotaxon 83:195-207


 * Color notations in parentheses are taken from Kornerup and Wanscher (1983).    
Specimens cited here are deposited in the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural 
History, Japan (KPM).   


  下の生態写真は2008年2月23日, 石垣島, 海岸砂浜の牛糞上から発生.


Canon EOS KISS X2, f.5.6, 1/250 s, ISO100, Tokina AT-X 107 DX fisheye 10-17mm (10mm
域で撮影)

Canon EOS KISS X2, f.5.6, 1/250 s, ISO100, Tokina AT-X 107 DX fisheye 10-17mm (17mm
域で撮影)


SONY DSC-F828, 絞り優先AE (f.7.1, 0.008 s), ISO100, 35mm.


 SONY DSC-F828, 絞り優先AE (f.7.1, 0.008 s), ISO100, 35mm.


SONY DSC-F828, 絞り優先AE (f.7.1, 0.00625 s), ISO100, 35mm.


Canon EOS 5D, 絞り優先AE (f.16, 1/8 s), ISO200, EF100mm F2.8 macro USM


SONY DSC-F828, 絞り優先AE (f.7.1, 1/125秒), ISO100, 35mm.


傘の表面に帯褐色のササクレ状鱗片を表した成菌
Canon EOS 5D, 絞り優先AE (f.16, 0.5 s), ISO100, EF100mm F2.8 macro USM


Canon EOS 5D, 絞り優先AE (f.16, 1/20 s), ISO200, EF100mm F2.8 macro USM


傘表皮に被膜の名残を付着した幼菌
Canon EOS 5D, 絞り優先AE (f.16, 0.6 s), ISO100, EF100mm F2.8 macro USM


成長をはじめた子実体原基 (傘の径約1mm). 全体が白色の綿毛状被膜に被われている.
Canon EOS 5D, 絞り優先AE (f.16, 2 s), ISO100, EF100mm F2.8 macro USM


子実体原基と幼菌
Canon EOS 5D, f.16, 1 s, ISO100, EF100mm F2.8 macro USM


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